World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of P-51 Mustang
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of T-34/85
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Fw-190
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Churchill ©2019
Japan's flag

Japanese Aircraft Code Names

Most of the German aircraft listed here weren't really used by the Japanese forces but the Allies thought they did and designated names for them.

Imperial Navy Assigns Popular Names

In July 1943 the Imperial Japanese Navy assigned popular names to aircraft:

  • Attack: Mountains
  • Bombers: Sei (stars) or Zan (constellations)
  • Fighters: Meteorological phenomena
    • Carrier based or sea based: Wind names ending in pu or fu
    • Interceptors: Lightning names ending in den
    • Night: Light names ending in ko
  • Miscellaneous: Landscape effects
  • Patrol: Seas and oceans
  • Reconnaissance: Clouds
  • Trainer: Trees, plants, and flowers
  • Transport: Skies

Allied Code Names

In June 1942 Captain Frank T. McCoy, Jr became the head of the Material Section of the Directorate of Intelligence, Allied Air Forces, Southwest Pacific Area. He had a staff of two and the three of them assigned code names to Japanese aircraft. The names were to be short and simple so that they were easy to remember. In late 1942 the United States Navy adopted the code names and in 1943 the British Air Ministry approved.

  • Attack: Female names
  • Bombers: Female names
  • Dive Bombers: Female names
  • Fighters: Male names
  • Flying Boats: Female names
  • Gliders: Names of Birds
  • Reconnaissance seaplanes: Male names
  • Trainers: Names of Trees
  • Transports: Females names that began with a T

Bomber, Dive Bomber, Torpedo

Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
  Experimental Special Attacker Baika "plum blossom"  
  Experimental Special Attacker Toka "wisteria"  
  Experimental Attack Plane Tozan "eastern mountain"  
Aichi B7A, Aichi B7A1/B7A3, B7A1 - B7A2 Navy Carrier Attack Bomber, Carrier Torpedo Plane Ryusei, Ryusei "shooting star", Ryusei "falling star", Ryūsei "shooting star" Grace
Aichi D1A1 Navy Type 94 Carrier Bomber, Navy Type 94 Dive Bomber   Susie
Aichi D1A2 Navy Type 96 Carrier Bomber   Susie
Aichi D3A, D3A1 - D3A2, Aichi 99-1 Navy Type 99 Carrier Bomber   Val
Aichi M6A1 Navy Special Attack Bomber Seiran "mountain haze"  
Aichi M6A1-K Special Attack Training Bomber Nanzan "southern mountain"  
Fiat B.R.20 Army Type I Heavy Bomber   Ruth
Heinkel He 111, Aichi Type 98 Medium Bomber   Bess
Hirosho G2H1 Type 95 Attack Plane    
Junkers Ju-87A     Irene
Kawasaki Dornier Do N Army Type 87 Heavy Bomber    
Kawasaki KDA-2 Army Type 88 Light Bomber    
Kawasaki Ki-3 Army Type 93 Light Bomber, Army Type 93 Single-engine Light Bomber, Type 93    
Kawasaki Ki-22 Army Experimental Heavy Bomber    
Kawasaki Ki-32 Army Type 98 Light Bomber   Mary
Kawasaki Ki-48 Army Type 99 Twin Engine Light Bomber   Lily
Kawasaki Ki-66 Army Experimental Dive Bomber    
Kawasaki Ki-85 Army Experimental Long-Range Bomber    
Kawasaki Ki-91 Army Experimental Long-Range Bomber    
Kawasaki Ki-102b Army Type 4 Assault Plane   Randy
Kawasaki Ki-119 Army Experimental Light Bomber    
Kawasaki Ki-174 Army Experimental Special Attacker    
Kawasaki Army Type 97 Medium Bomber   Julia
Kugisho D4Y1/D4Y5 Navy Carrier Bomber Suisei "comet" Judy
Kugisho P1Y1/P1Y6, Yokosuka P1Y1 - P1Y6 Navy Bomber Ginga "milky way" Frances
Mitsubishi 2MB1 Army Type 87 Light Bomber    
Mitsubishi B1M1 - B1M3 Type 13 Carrier Torpedo Plane    
Mitsubishi B2M1 - B2M2 Type 89 Carrier Torpedo Plane    
Mitsubishi B5M1 Navy Type 97-2 Carrier Attack Bomber   Mabel
Mitsubishi B-97 Medium Bomber Darai Doris
Mitsubishi G3M, G3M1 - G3M3 Navy Type 96 Attack Bomber   Nell
Mitsubishi G4M1 / G4M6, Mitsubishi G4M1 - G4M3, Mitsubishi Zero-1 Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber   Betty
Mitsubishi Ki-1 Army Type 93 Heavy Bomber    
Mitsubishi Ki-2, Mitsubishi Ki-2-II Army Type 93 Twin Engine Light Bomber, Army Type 93-2 Twin Engine Light Bomber   Louise
Mitsubishi Ki-20 Army Type 92 Heavy Bomber    
Mitsubishi Ki-21 Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber   Jane, Sally
Mitsubishi Ki-21-IIb, Mitsubishi Army Type 0 Medium Bomber, Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 2B   Gwen, Sally 3
Mitsubishi Ki-30 Army Type 97 Light Bomber   Ann
Mitsubishi Ki-47 Army Experimental Light Bomber    
Mitsubishi Ki-50 Army Experimental Heavy Bomber    
Mitsubishi Ki-51 Army Type 99 Assault Plane, Army Type 99 Assault Plane / Tactical Reconnaissance   Sonia
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Army Type 4 Heavy Bomber Hiryu, Hiryu "flying dragon" Peggy
Mitsubishi Ki-67-IKAI Army Type 4 Special Attack Plane   Peggy
Mitsubishi Ki-90 Army Experimental Bomber    
Mitsubishi Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber   Jane
Mitsubishi Type 97 Light Bomber   Norma
Nakajima Experimental Special Attacker Kikka "orange blossom"  
Nakajima B5N1 - B5N2, Nakajima 97-2 Navy Type 97-1 and 97-3 Carrier Attack Bomber, Type 97 Carrier Torpedo Plane   Kate
Nakajima B6N1/B6N3 , B6N1 - B6N2 Navy Carrier Attack Bomber, Carrier Torpedo Plane Tenzan "heavenly mountain" Jill
Nakajima G5N1/G5N2 Navy Experimental 13-Shi Attack Bomber Shinzan "mountain recess" Liz
Nakajima G8N, Nakajima G8N1 Navy Experimental 18-Shi Attack Bomber Renzan, Renzan "mountain range" Rita
Nakajima Ki-19 Army Experimental Heavy Bomber    
Nakajima Ki-31 Army Experimental Light Bomber    
Nakajima Ki-49 Army Type 100 Heavy Bomber Donryu "storm dragon" Helen
Nakajima Ki-52 Army Experimental Dive Bomber    
Nakajima Ki-68 Army Experimental Long-Range Bomber    
Nakajima Ki-82 Army Experimental Bomber    
Nakajima Ki-115 Army Special Attacker Tsurugi "sabre"  
Nakajima Ki-230 Army Experimental Special Attacker    
Nakajima Army Type 1 Light Bomber   Joyce
Nakajima Type 96-1 Navy K-96    
Tachikawa Ki-29 Army Experimental Light Bomber    
Tachikawa Ki-74 Army Experimental Long Range Bomber, Army Experimental High-Altitude Long-Range Bomber   Pat, Patsy
Vultee V-11GB Type 98 Showa Light Bomber   Millie
Yokosuka B3Y1 Type 92 Carrier Torpedo Plane    
Yokosuka B4Y1 Type 96 Carrier Torpedo Plane   Jean
Yokosuka D4Y2 - D4Y4, Nakajima Navy Carrier Dive Bomber, Navy Type 1 Dive Bomber Suisei "comet" Judy, Dot


Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
Aichi S1A1 Navy Experimental 18-Shi Night Fighter Denko "bolt of light"  
Focke Wulf Fw 190A-5     Fred
Heinkel A7He1 Navy Type He Interceptor Fighter   Jerry
Kawanishi N1K1-J, Kawanishi N1K1-J - N1K5-J, Kawanishi N1K2-J KAI, N1K2-J Navy Interceptor Fighter Shiden "violent lightning", Shiden "lightning flash", Shiden-kai "improved Shiden" George
Kawasaki KDA-5 Army Type 92 Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-5 Army Experimental Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-10 Army Type 95 Fighter   Perry
Kawasaki Ki-28 Army Experimental Fighter   Bob
Kawasaki Ki-38 Army Experimental Twin-Engine Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-45KAI Army Type 2 Two Seat Fighter Toryu, Toryu "dragon killer" Nick
Kawasaki Ki-60 Army Experimental Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-61 Army Type 3 Fighter Hien, Hien "swallow" Tony
Kawasaki Ki-64 Army Experimental High Speed Fighter   Rob
Kawasaki Ki-81 Army Experimental Multi-Seat Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-88 Army Experimental Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-96 Army Experimental Twin Engine Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-100 Army Type 5 Fighter, Army Type 5 Fighter Model 1A    
Kawasaki Ki-102a Army Experimental High Altitude Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-102c Army Experimental Night Fighter    
Kawasaki Ki-108 Army Experimental High Altitude Fighter    
Kawasaki Army Type 1 Single Seat Fighter   Jim
Kugisho P1Y1-S, Yokosuka P1Y1-S Navy Night Fighter Byakko "white light", Ginga "milky way" Frances
Kugisho P1Y2-S Navy Night Fighter Kyokko "auroa", Ginga "milky way" Frances
Kyushu J7W1 Navy Experimental 18-Shi Interceptor Fighter Shinden "magnificent lightning" , "magnificent thunderbolt"  
Mansyu Ki-65 Army Experimental Fighter    
Mansyu Ki-98 Army Experimental Assault Plane and Heavy Fighter    
Mansyu Ki-116 Army Experimental Fighter    
Messerschmitt Bf 109E     Mike
Messerschmitt Bf 110     Doc
Mitsubishi A5M, A5M1 - A5M4 Navy Type 96 Carrier Fighter   Claude, Sandy
Mitsubishi A5M4-K Navy Type 2 Training Fighter    
Mitsubishi A6M, A6M2 - A6M8, Mitsubishi Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter, Navy Type 1 Single Seat Fighter   Ray, Zeke, Zero
Mitsubishi A6M3 Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 32   Hap, Hamp, Zeke 32
Mitsubishi A7M, Mitsubishi A7M1/2 Navy Experimental Carrier Fighter, Navy Experimental 17-Shi Ko (A) Type Carrier Fighter Reppu, Reppu "violent wind", "hurricane" Sam
Mitsubishi G6M1 Navy Type 1 Formation Escort Fighter, Navy Type 1 Wingtip Convoy Fighter   Betty
Mitsubishi J2M, Mitsubishi J2M1/J2M7, J2M1 - J2M6 Navy Interceptor Fighter Raiden "thunderbolt" Jack
Mitsubishi J4M1 Navy Experimental 17-Shi Interceptor Senden "flashing lightning" Luke
Mitsubishi J8M1 Navy Experimental 19-Shi Interceptor Fighter Shusui, Shūsui "shining blade", "swinging sword"  
Mitsubishi Ki-18 Army Experimental Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-33 Army Experimental Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-39 Army Experimental Twin-Engine Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-46-IIIKAI Army Type 100 Interceptor Fighter   Dinah
Mitsubishi Ki-69 Army Experimental Escort Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-73 Army Experimental Fighter   Steve
Mitsubishi Ki-83 Army Experimental Long-Range Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-99 Army Experimental Short Range Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-103 Army Experimental Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-109 Army Experimental Interceptor Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-112 Army Experimental Multiseat Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-118 Army Experimental Fighter    
Mitsubishi Ki-200 Army Experimental Rocket Powered Interceptor Fighter Shusui  
Mitsubishi, Mitsubishi TK-4 Army Type 0 Single Seat Twin Engine Fighter   Frank, Harry
Nagoya-Sento KI-001 Navy Carrier Fighter   Ben
Nakajima A1N1 - A1N2 Type 3 Carrier Fighter    
Nakajima A2N1 - A2N3 Type 90 Carrier Fighter    
Nakajima A4N1 Type 95 Carrier Fighter    
Nakajima AT-27 Twin Engine Fighter   Gus
Nakajima C6N1-S Night Fighter Sauin "iridescent cloud" Myrt
Nakajima J1N1-S, J1N1 - J1N3 Navy Type 2 Night Fighter, Navy Night Fighter Gekko "moonlight", Gekkō "moonlight" Irving
Nakajima J5N1 Navy Experimental Interceptor Fighter Tenrai "heavenly thunder"  
Nakajima Ki-8 Army Experimental Two-Seat Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-11, AN-1 Army Experimental Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-12 Army Experimental Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-27, Mitsubishi Army Type 97 Fighter, Army Type 97 Fighter Model A   Abdul, Nate
Nakajima Ki-37 Army Experimental Twin-Engine Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-43 Army Type 1 Fighter Hayabusa, Hayabusa "peregrine falcon" Oscar
Nakajima Ki-44 Army Type 2 Single Seat Fighter, Army Type 2 Single Seat Fighter Model 1A Shoki Shoki, Shoki "demon", "devil queller" Tojo
Nakajima Ki-53 Army Experimental Twin-Engine Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-58 Army Experimental Escort Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-62 Army Experimental Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-63 Army Experimental Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-75 Army Experimental Twin-Engine High-Altitude Night Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-80 Army Experimental Multi-Seat Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-84 Army Type 4 Fighter Hayate "gale", "storm" Frank
Nakajima Ki-87 Army Experimental High Altitude Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-101 Army Experimental Twin Engine Night Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-113 Army Experimental Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-117 Army Experimental Fighter    
Nakajima Ki-201 Army Experimental Fighter Attacker Karyu  
Nakajima Army Type 91 Fighter    
Nakajima Army Type 97 Fighter   Clint
Rikugun Ki-93 Army Experimental Heavy Fighter and Assault Plane    
Rikugun Ki-202 Army Experimental Rocker-Powered Interceptor Fighter    
Seversky A8V1 Navy Type S Two Seat Fighter   Dick
Suzukaze 20 Twin Engine Fighter Sukukaze "cool breeze" Omar
Tachikawa Ki-104 Army Experimental Fighter    
Tachikawa Ki-106 Army Experimental Fighter    
Yokosuka D4Y2-S Night Fighter Suisei "comet" Judy

Floatplane, Flying Boat

Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
  Navy Type 99 Four Engine Flying Boat   Joan
Aichi E10A, Aichi E10A1 Navy Type 96 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Hank
Aichi E11A1 Navy Type 98 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Laura
Aichi E13A, Aichi E13A1 Navy Type 0 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Jake
Aichi E16A, Aichi E16A1/E16A2 Navy Reconnaissance Seaplane Zuiun "auspicious cloud" , "cloud of good omens" Paul
Aichi H8K2-L Navy Transport Flying Boat, Type 2 Flying Boat Model 11 Seiku "clear sky" Emily
Aichi H9A1 Navy Type 2 Training Flying Boat, Navy Type 2 Training Flying Boat Model 11    
Aichi Navy Type 97 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Bob
Aichi, Aichi AI-104 Navy Type 98 Bomber Float Plane, Navy Type 98 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Ione
Aichi Navy Type 99 Single Engine Dive Bomber Seaplane   June
Kawanishi E7K Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Alf
Kawanishi E15K, Shiun Kawanishi E15K1 Navy Type 2 High Speed Reconnaissance Seaplane   Norm
Kawanishi H3K1 Navy Type 90-2 Flying Boat   Belle
Kawanishi H6K Navy Type 97 Flying Boat   Mavis
Kawanishi H8K, Kawanishi Zero-2 Navy Type 2 Flying Boat Seiku "clear sky" Emily
Kawanishi N1K, Kawanishi N1K1/N1K2 Navy Fighter Seaplane Kyofu, Kyofu "strong wing" Rex
Kugisho E14Y1, Yokosuka E14Y Navy Type 0 Small Reconnaissance Seaplane   Glen
Kugisho H5Y, Yokusuka H5Y Navy Type 99 Flying Boat   Cherry
Mitsubishi F1M, Mitsubishi F1M1 Navy Type 0 Observation Seaplane   Pete
Mitsubishi Mitsu 95, H-96      
Nakajima A6M2-N Navy Type 2 Fighter Seaplane   Rufe
Nakajima E8N1 Navy Type 95 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Dave
Nakajima, Nakajima SKT-97 Navy Type 97 Seaplane Fighter   Adam
Watanabe E9W Navy Type 96 Reconnaissance Seaplane   Slim
Yokosuka H7Y Navy Experimental 12-Shi Flying Boat   Tillie


Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
Tachikawa Ki-24 Army Primary Glider    
Tachikawa Ki-25 Army Experimental Glider    
Tachikawa Ki-26 Army Experimental Glider    


Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
Kokusai Ki-76 Army Type 3 Command Liaison Plane   Stella
Mitsubishi Ki-14 Army Experimental Direct Cooperation Plane    
Mitsubishi Ki-35 Army Experimental Direct Cooperation Plane    
Mitsubishi Ohtori Civil Long Range Communication Plane   Eva / Eve
Nakajima Ki-13 Army Experimental Direct Cooperation Plane    
Tachikawa Ki-36 Army Type 98 Direct Cooperation Plane   Ida
Tachikawa Ki-72 Army Experimental Direct Cooperation Plane    


Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
Fukuda Ki-23 Army Training Seaplane    
Kokusai Ki-86 Army Type 4 Primary Trainer   Cypress
Kugisho K5Y , Yokosuka K5Y Navy Type 93 Intermediate Trainer, Navy Type 95 Intermediate Trainer   Willow
Kyushu K9W1 Navy Type 2 Primary Trainer Momiji "maple" Cypress
Kyushu K10W, Kyushu K10W1 Navy Type 2 Intermediate Trainer   Oak
Kyushu K11W1 Navy Operations Trainer Shiragiku "white chrysanthemum"  
Manshu Ki-79 Army Type 2 Advanced Trainer    
Mitsubishi G6M1-K Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Trainer, Navy Type 1 Large Land Trainer   Betty
Mitsubishi K3M, Mitsubishi K3M1 Navy Type 90 Crew Trainer, Navy Type 90 Operation Trainer   Pine
Mitsubishi Ki-46-IIKAI Army Type 100 Tactical Pilot Trainer   Dinah
Nakajima Ki-6 Army Type 95-2 Trainer    
Nakajima Ki-7 Army Experimental Crew Trainer    
Tachikawa Ki-9 Army Type 95-1 Intermediate Trainer, Army Type 95-1 Medium Grade Trainer   Spruce
Tachikawa Ki-17 Army Type 95-3 Primary Trainer   Cedar
Tachikawa Ki-54, Tachikawa Ki-54a Army Type 1 Advanced Trainer, Army Type 1 Advanced Trainer, Operations Trainer and Transport   Hickory
Tachikawa Ki-54b Army Type 1 Operations Trainer   Hickory
Tachikawa Ki-55 Army Type 99 Advanced Trainer   Ida
Tokyo Koku Aiba 8      
Tokyo Koku Ki-107 Army Experimental Primary Trainer    
Yokosuka D3Y1 Navy Experimental Bomber Trainer Myojo "venus"  

Transport, Glider

Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
  Navy Primary Glider Wakakusa "young grass"  
Ki-120 Army Experimental Transport    
Douglas DC-2     Tess
Douglas DC-3 L2D1, Douglas DC-3 L2D2/L2D5, Douglas L2D Navy Type D Transport, Navy Type 0 Transport   Tabby
Junkers Ju-52/3     Trixie
Kawasaki Ki-56 Army Type 1 Freight Transport   Thalia
Kokusai Ki-59 Army Type 1 Transport   Theresa
Kokusai Ki-105 Army Experimental Transport Ohtori    
Kokusai Ku-7 Army Experimental Transport Glider Manazuru   Buzzard
Kokusai Ku-8 Army Type 4 Special Transport Glider   Gander, Goose
Kugisho L3Y, Mitsubishi L3Y, Mitsubishi Ki-33 Navy Type 96 Transport   Tina
Lockheed 14 Army Type LO Transport   Thelma
Mitsubishi G6M1-L2 Navy Type 1 Transport   Betty
Mitsubishi Ki-57 Army Type 100 Transport   Topsy
Mitsubishi Ki-97 Army Experimental Transport    
Mitsubishi Ki-112 Army Experimental Multiseat Fighter    
Mitsubishi L4M, Mitsubishi L4M1 Navy Type 0 Transport   Topsy
Nakajima Ki-16 Army Experimental Transport    
Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport   Thora
Nakajima L1N, Nakajima L1N1 Navy Type 97 Transport   Thora
Tachikawa Ki-54c Army Type 1 Transport   Hickory
Tachikawa Ki-92 Army Experimental Transport    
Tachikawa Ki-110 Army Experimental Transport    
Tachikawa Ki-111 Army Experimental Transport    
Tachikawa Ki-114 Army Experimental Transport    
Yokosuka L3Y Navy Type 96 Transport   Nell


Manufacturers Name Official Name Japanese Nickname Allied Code Name
G7M1   Taizan "great mountain"  
G10N1   Fugaku "Mount Fuji"  
H11K1-L   Soku "blue sky"  
J6K1   Jinpu "squall"  
Kawasaki Ki-78 Army Experimental High-Speed Research Plane    
Kawasaki Ki-89 Army Experimental Research Plane    
Kawasaki Ki-148 Army Igo-1-B Guided Missile    
Ki-128 Fighter or Special Attack    
Kugisho MXY4 Navy Type 1 Target Plane    
Lockheed 14     Toby
MXY8   Akigusa "autumn grass"  
Q2M1   Taiyo "ocean"  
Q3W1   Nankai "south sea"  
Tachikawa Ki-77 Army Experimental Long-Range Research Plane    
Yokosuka MXY7, MXY7-K2 Attack Suicide Plane Ōka "cherry blossom" , Ohka "cherry blossom", Wakazakura "young cherry", Navy Special Attacker Ohka Baka


  1. Japanese Aircraft Code Names & Designations, Robert C. Mikesh, 1993
  2. Japanese Naval Aces and Fighter Units in World War II, Ikuhiko Hata, Yasuho Izawa, 1989
  3. World War II Airplanes Volume 2, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  4. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  5. Aircraft of World War II, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  6. Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Editor: Karen Leverington, 1995
  7. Seafire vs A6M Zero Pacific Theatre, Donald Nijboer, 2009
  8. A6M Zero in Action, Shigeru Nohara, 1983
  9. Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, US War Department, 1991
  10. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  11. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  12. The Struggle for Guadalcanal August 1942 - February 1943, Samual Eliot Morison, 1949
  13. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, René J Francillon, 1970
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